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Littlebourne
Church of England Primary School

Together we learn, achieve and grow

Science

Curriculum Area Science

 

Purpose of Study

A high-quality science education provides the foundations for understanding the world through the specific disciplines of biology chemistry and physics. Science has changed our lives and is vital to the world’s future prosperity, and all pupils should be taught essential aspects of the knowledge, methods, processes and uses of science. Through building up a body of key foundational knowledge and concepts, pupils should been encouraged to recognise the power of rational explanation and develop a sense of excitement and curiosity about natural phenomena. They should be encouraged to understand how science can be used to explain what is occurring, predict how things will

behave, and analyse causes.

Aims

The national curriculum for science aims to ensure that all pupils:

  • develop scientific knowledge and conceptual understanding through the specific

disciplines of biology, chemistry and physics

  • develop understanding of the nature, processes and methods of science through

different types of science enquiries that help them to answer scientific questions about

the world around them

  • are equipped with the scientific knowledge required to understand the uses and

implications of science, today and for the future.

 

 

Key Stage 1

The principal focus of science teaching in key stage 1 is to enable pupils to experience and observe phenomena, looking more closely at the natural and humanly-constructed world around them. They should be encouraged to be curious and ask questions about what they notice. They should be helped to develop their understanding of scientific ideas by using different types of scientific enquiry to answer their own questions, including

observing changes over a period of time, noticing patterns, grouping and classifying things, carrying out simple comparative tests, and finding things out using secondary sources of information. They should begin to use simple scientific language to talk about what they have found out and communicate their ideas to a range of audiences in a variety of ways. Most of the learning about science should be done through the use of first-hand

practical experiences, but there should also be some use of appropriate secondary sources, such as books, photographs and videos.

‘Working scientifically’ is described separately in the programme of study, but must always be taught through and clearly related to the teaching of substantive science content in the programme of study. Throughout the notes and guidance, examples show how scientific methods and skills might be linked to specific elements of the content. Pupils should read and spell scientific vocabulary at a level consistent with their increasing word reading and spelling knowledge at key stage 1.

Year 1

 

Seasonal change, Everyday materials, Plants, Animals including humans.

 

Plants

 

  • identify and name a variety of common wild and garden plants, including deciduous and evergreen trees

 

  • identify and describe the basic structure of a variety of common flowering plants, including trees.

 

Animals including humans

 

  • identify and name a variety of common animals including fish, amphibians, reptiles, birds and mammals

 

  • identify and name a variety of common animals that are carnivores, herbivores and omnivores

 

Everyday materials

 

  • distinguish between an object and the material from which it is made
  • identify and name a variety of everyday materials, including wood, plastic, glass,

metal, water, and rock

  • describe the simple physical properties of a variety of everyday materials
  • compare and group together a variety of everyday materials on the basis of their simple physical properties

Seasonal changes

Pupils should be taught to:

  • observe changes across the four seasons
  • observe and describe weather associated with the seasons and how day length varies.

 

 

 

Year 2

 

All living things and their habitats, Animals including humans, Uses of everyday materials, Plants.

 

Living things and their habitats

 

Pupils should be taught to:

  • explore and compare the differences between things that are living, dead, and things that have never been alive
  • identify that most living things live in habitats to which they are suited and describe
  • how different habitats provide for the basic needs of different kinds of animals and plants, and how they depend on each other
  • identify and name a variety of plants and animals in their habitats, including microhabitats
  • describe how animals obtain their food from plants and other animals, using the idea of a simple food chain, and identify and name different sources of food.

 

Plants

 

Pupils should be taught to:

  • observe and describe how seeds and bulbs grow into mature plants
  • find out and describe how plants need water, light and a suitable temperature to grow and stay healthy.

 

Animals including humans

 

 Pupils should be taught to:

  • notice that animals, including humans, have offspring which grow into adults
  • find out about and describe the basic needs of animals, including humans, for survival (water, food and air)
  • describe the importance for humans of exercise, eating the right amounts of different
  • types of food, and hygiene.

Use of everyday materials

 

 

Pupils should be taught to:

  • identify and compare the suitability of a variety of everyday materials, including wood, metal, plastic, glass, brick, rock, paper and cardboard for particular uses
  • find out how the shapes of solid objects made from some materials can be changed by squashing, bending, twisting and stretching.

 

 

Key Stage 2

During years 3 and 4, pupils should be taught to use the following practical scientific

methods, processes and skills through the teaching of the programme of study content:

  • asking relevant questions and using different types of scientific enquiries to answer

them

  • setting up simple practical enquiries, comparative and fair tests
  • making systematic and careful observations and, where appropriate, taking accurate

measurements using standard units, using a range of equipment, including

thermometers and data loggers

  • gathering, recording, classifying and presenting data in a variety of ways to help in

answering questions

  • recording findings using simple scientific language, drawings, labelled diagrams,

keys, bar charts, and tables

  • reporting on findings from enquiries, including oral and written explanations, displays

or presentations of results and conclusions

  • using results to draw simple conclusions, make predictions for new values, suggest

improvements and raise further questions

  • identifying differences, similarities or changes related to simple scientific ideas and

processes

  • using straightforward scientific evidence to answer questions or to support their

findings.

 

 

During years 5 and 6, pupils should be taught to use the following practical scientific

methods, processes and skills through the teaching of the programme of study content:

  • planning different types of scientific enquiries to answer questions, including

recognising and controlling variables where necessary

  • taking measurements, using a range of scientific equipment, with increasing

accuracy and precision, taking repeat readings when appropriate

  • recording data and results of increasing complexity using scientific diagrams and

labels, classification keys, tables, scatter graphs, bar and line graphs

  • using test results to make predictions to set up further comparative and fair tests
  • reporting and presenting findings from enquiries, including conclusions, causal

relationships and explanations of and degree of trust in results, in oral and written

forms such as displays and other presentations

  • identifying scientific evidence that has been used to support or refute ideas or

arguments.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Year 3

 

Plants, Animals including humans, Light, Rocks, Forces and magnets.

 

Plants

 

Pupils should be taught to:

  • identify and describe the functions of different parts of flowering plants: roots,

stem/trunk, leaves and flowers

  • explore the requirements of plants for life and growth (air, light, water, nutrients from

soil, and room to grow) and how they vary from plant to plant

  • investigate the way in which water is transported within plants
  • explore the part that flowers play in the life cycle of flowering plants, including

pollination, seed formation and seed dispersal.

 

Animals including humans

 

Pupils should be taught to:

  • identify that animals, including humans, need the right types and amount of nutrition,

and that they cannot make their own food; they get nutrition from what they eat

  • identify that humans and some other animals have skeletons and muscles for

support, protection and movement.

 

Rocks

 

 

Pupils should be taught to:

  • compare and group together different kinds of rocks on the basis of their appearance

and simple physical properties

  • describe in simple terms how fossils are formed when things that have lived are

trapped within rock

  • recognise that soils are made from rocks and organic matter.

Light

 

Pupils should be taught to:

  • recognise that they need light in order to see things and that dark is the absence of

light

  • notice that light is reflected from surfaces
  • recognise that light from the sun can be dangerous and that there are ways to protect

their eyes

  • recognise that shadows are formed when the light from a light source is blocked by a

solid object

  • find patterns in the way that the size of shadows change.

 

Forces and Magnets

 

Pupils should be taught to:

  • compare how things move on different surfaces
  • notice that some forces need contact between two objects, but magnetic forces can

act at a distance

  • observe how magnets attract or repel each other and attract some materials and not

others

  • compare and group together a variety of everyday materials on the basis of whether

they are attracted to a magnet, and identify some magnetic materials

  • describe magnets as having two poles
  • predict whether two magnets will attract or repel each other, depending on which

poles are facing.

 

 

 

 

Year 4

 

 

Sound, States of Matter, Electricity, Animals including humans, All living things.

 

Animals including humans

 

Pupils should be taught to:

  • describe the simple functions of the basic parts of the digestive system in humans
  • identify the different types of teeth in humans and their simple functions
  • construct and interpret a variety of food chains, identifying producers, predators and

prey.

 

All living things

Pupils should be taught to:

  • recognise that living things can be grouped in a variety of ways
  • explore and use classification keys to help group, identify and name a variety of living

things in their local and wider environment

  • recognise that environments can change and that this can sometimes pose dangers

to living things.

States of Matter

 

Pupils should be taught to:

  • compare and group materials together, according to whether they are solids, liquids

or gases

  • observe that some materials change state when they are heated or cooled, and

measure or research the temperature at which this happens in degrees Celsius (°C)

  • identify the part played by evaporation and condensation in the water cycle and

associate the rate of evaporation with temperature

 

 

 

Sound

Pupils should be taught to:

  • identify how sounds are made, associating some of them with something vibrating
  • recognise that vibrations from sounds travel through a medium to the ear
  • find patterns between the pitch of a sound and features of the object that produced it
  • find patterns between the volume of a sound and the strength of the vibrations that

produced it

  • recognise that sounds get fainter as the distance from the sound source increases.

 

Electricity

 

Pupils should be taught to:

  • identify common appliances that run on electricity
  • construct a simple series electrical circuit, identifying and naming its basic parts,

including cells, wires, bulbs, switches and buzzers

  • identify whether or not a lamp will light in a simple series circuit, based on whether or

not the lamp is part of a complete loop with a battery

  • recognise that a switch opens and closes a circuit and associate this with whether or

not a lamp lights in a simple series circuit

  • recognise some common conductors and insulators, and associate metals with being

good conductors.

Year 5

 

Animals including humans, properties and changes of materials, Forces, Earth and space, All living things.

 

All living things

 

Pupils should be taught to:

  • describe the differences in the life cycles of a mammal, an amphibian, an insect and

a bird

  • describe the life process of reproduction in some plants and animals.

 

Animals including humans

 

Pupils should be taught to:

  • describe the changes as humans develop to old age.

 

Properties and changes of materials

 

Pupils should be taught to:

  • compare and group together everyday materials on the basis of their properties,

including their hardness, solubility, transparency, conductivity (electrical and

thermal), and response to magnets

  • know that some materials will dissolve in liquid to form a solution, and describe how

to recover a substance from a solution

  • use knowledge of solids, liquids and gases to decide how mixtures might be

separated, including through filtering, sieving and evaporating

  • give reasons, based on evidence from comparative and fair tests, for the particular

uses of everyday materials, including metals, wood and plastic

  • demonstrate that dissolving, mixing and changes of state are reversible changes
  • explain that some changes result in the formation of new materials, and that this kind

of change is not usually reversible, including changes associated with burning and

the action of acid on bicarbonate of soda.

 

Earth and Space

 

Pupils should be taught to:

  • describe the movement of the Earth, and other planets, relative to the Sun in the

solar system

  • describe the movement of the Moon relative to the Earth
  • describe the Sun, Earth and Moon as approximately spherical bodies
  • use the idea of the Earth’s rotation to explain day and night and the apparent

movement of the sun across the sky.

 

Forces

Pupils should be taught to:

  • explain that unsupported objects fall towards the Earth because of the force of

gravity acting between the Earth and the falling object

  • identify the effects of air resistance, water resistance and friction, that act between

moving surfaces

  • recognise that some mechanisms, including levers, pulleys and gears, allow a

smaller force to have a greater effect.

 

 

Year 6

 

All living things, Evolution and inheritance, Light, Animals including humans, Electricity

 

All living things

 

Pupils should be taught to:

  • describe how living things are classified into broad groups according to common

observable characteristics and based on similarities and differences, including microorganisms,

plants and animals

  • give reasons for classifying plants and animals based on specific characteristics.

 

Animals including humans

 

Pupils should be taught to:

  • identify and name the main parts of the human circulatory system, and describe the

functions of the heart, blood vessels and blood

  • recognise the impact of diet, exercise, drugs and lifestyle on the way their bodies

function

  • describe the way

 

Evolution and inheritance

 

Pupils should be taught to:

  • recognise that living things have changed over time and that fossils provide

information about living things that inhabited the Earth millions of years ago

  • recognise that living things produce offspring of the same kind, but normally offspring

vary and are not identical to their parents

  • identify how animals and plants are adapted to suit their environment in different

ways and that adaptation may lead to evolution.

 

Light

 

 

Pupils should be taught to:

  • recognise that light appears to travel in straight lines
  • use the idea that light travels in straight lines to explain that objects are seen

because they give out or reflect light into the eye

  • explain that we see things because light travels from light sources to our eyes or

from light sources to objects and then to our eyes

  • use the idea that light travels in straight lines to explain why shadows have the same

shape as the objects that cast them.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Electricity

 

Pupils should be taught to:

  • associate the brightness of a lamp or the volume of a buzzer with the number and

voltage of cells used in the circuit

  • compare and give reasons for variations in how components function, including the

brightness of bulbs, the loudness of buzzers and the on/off position of switches

  • use recognised symbols when representing a simple circuit in a diagram.

 

 

 

 

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